Created June 7, 2010. Revised June 7, 2013; and May 8, 2017.
Copyright 1998-2017 by John W. Allen.




RICHARD EVANS SCHULTES

"THE BOOKS OF REVELATIONS"
EDITED BY JOHN W. ALLEN
"Plantae Mexicanae II
"THE IDENTIFICATION OF TEONANÁCATL:
A NARCOTIC BASIDIOMYCETE OF THE AZTECS."

From
"Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University" vol. 7(3):37-56. February 21, 1939).



 
Part 1.
Hello and welcome to Mushroom John's, " Tales of the Shrooms."

This section of my website contains numerous published articles concerning the occurrence and physical evidence related directly to the historical documents written during and after the conquest of Nueva España.

During and after the time of the Conquest, several scholars of that period wrote short notations regarding the discovery and ceremonial use of what we today refer to as magic mushrooms, peyote, Salvia divinorum, morning glory seeds and other plants considered to be of an entheogenic nature. Such plants are often referred and defined in contemporary times as mind-altering compounds, neurotropics, entheogens, psychedelics, and/or the most common term as hallucinogenic plants.

The true nature of these writings came from the botanists, historians, and members of the Spanish Clergy and other historians who wrote and cataloged their new third world discoveries by writing of their nature and the powers that the indigenous natives who used these plants believed in the actions that the magic of the plants imbued in those who believed in and used such plants in divination and healing and curing ritual ceremonies.

The Most famous book that covered the actions of psilocybian mushrooms are found in The Florentine Codex, the name given to 12 books created under the supervision of Fray Bernardino de Sahagún written and published between approximately 1540 and 1585. The Florentine Codex notes the first descriptions of the actions of the mushrooms known to be referred to as "Teonanácatl," or translated as meaning, "Flesh of the Gods" and/or "Gods flesh." Between the early beginnings of the 15th century, such articles, although considered to be a fascinating subject matter, caused the use of such fungi and other plants to be
distantly ignored and the Spanish court and the Holy Cee distanced themselves from their historical observations and such plant use was mostly ignored by the scientific communities in Europe, and only a small handful of the clergy and botanists of the 15th-18th centuries would read in secrecy, the writings and discoveries recorded by the Spanish clergy during and after the conquest. While those in education and science continued to study a subject so fascinating that it remained silently hidden from those who followed the inquisition.

For several hundred years, the church and the Spanish Inquisition was a most viral group that spread their own dissent that unless one was either a true believer, a subject who followed the teachings of the Christ or one was an agent of the devil and was known to have worshipped idolatries and/or consumed evil herbal medicines and potions and followed the the teachings of the devil.

If it was a tale told by a subject who practiced heresy and not from Christ, then it was not worth talking about or of being revealed to the intellects, aristocrats and elitists snobs of the scientific community and the Royal Courts of the European Nations.

Only on a few occasions were mushrooms briefly noted by historians as possible aphrodisiacs, something sought for by the conquerors interested for use in seducing young virgin maidens. Such were the Tales of the New World as it was slowly revealed to its citizens. Unfortunately for the world, even the Mazatecs, and the remaining ancestors of the Mayan peoples of the New World, including the Olmecs. the Toltecs and the Aztec were successfully able to hide the use of their pagan semi-religious healing and curing ritual activities and their all-night vigils and veladas from the Conquistadors and their ancestors for more than 400 years.

Can you imagine just how strong was the strength of the Native American peoples to hide in fear, their archaic ancient practice of their idolic-like ritual ceremonial activities from their conquerors.

In the early 1960s, the study of these special mushrooms was presented to the scientific community in the Pacific Northwest of North America at the 2nd International Conference of Hallucinogenic Mushrooms, a new term applied to classify and justify a new botanical keyword was created that became known as "ethnomycology." Eventually that field of endeavor would thus spread and developed into several dozen new areas of interest from archaeology, ethnobotany, entheobotany, psychology, chemistry, cultivation of fungi and plants, etc.

Between the 1950s and 1960s, the scientific classifications of magic mushrooms and other entheogenic plants produced hundreds of new papers with data of these powerful natural medicinal fungi and plants and the papers that were published in these various sundry fields of studies, often described in visual detail, the addition of dozens of more newly discovered plants that were also described as being of a narcotic or psychedelic hallucinogenic nature.

The translations of the Spanish codices of many naturally occurring plants, which, when consumed, smoked or snorted, produce in humankind, a cerebral mycetismus or what became coined to describe such inebriations and/or intoxications as being an "altered state of consciousness." Between the 15th century until the late 1940s, there were only about 50 known published articles or books written that mentioned the use of a plant or fungus that was known to those in the Ancient Aztec Empire as Teonanácatl, implying (God's Flesh].




APPENDIX ONE
Early Historical References



 
Part 2.
Basalenque, Diego. 1642. Vocabulario Espanol Matlatzinca: Mushroom Lexicon. Biblioteca National de Mexico.
See entry under hongo que emboracha and Chohui (places sacred mushrooms in Matlatzinca land). Also available at John Carter Brown Library, Providence, R. I.

Cordova, Juan de. 1587. Vocabulario en Lengua Capoteca. Facsimile.
Places sacred mushrooms among the Zapotecs (see listings under hongo and xetas).

Coto, Friar Tomas de. 1983. Vocabulario de la Lengua Cakchiquel...Ediciones René Acuña. Instituto de Investigaciones Filógicas. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. México City.

Covarrubias, Gaspar de. 1579 [1906]. Relacion de las minas de Temazcaltepec. Papeles de Nueva Espana: Geografia y Estadistica. Ser. 2 vol. VII:20. Madrid. Francisco del Paso y Troncoso, 1906 edition.
A report that suggests that the sacred mushrooms were provided as a tribute to the Matlanzinca overlord by the common peoples.

de la Serna, Jacinto. 1892. Manual de Ministros de Indios para el conocimiento de sus Idolatrias y extirpación de ellas. Published in Mexico City. See Chap. IV, sec. 3; also Chap. XV, sec. 2, para 4.
Although Serna considers the mushrooms to be diabolical, he notes that the Indians regard the mushrooms as divine flesh. Serna also mentions the comparison of mushroom use to the Christian Eucharist.

------. 1900. Anales del Museo Nacional de Mexico vol. VI. México City.

------. 1900. Anales de Ministros de Indios para Conocimiento de sus Idolatras Extipacion de Ellas. Anales del Musco Nacional de Mexico: Chapter 15, section 2, paragraph 433. Published in Mexico in 1892.

------. 1953 [1656]. Tratado de las Idolatras, Supersticiones, Dioses, Ritos, Hechicerias y Otras Costumbres Gentílicas de las Razas Aborígenes de México. Ediciones Fuente Cultural. México. Originally published in 1656.
According to Ott (1993b), "Some 75% of this text was taken from the first draft of Ruíz de Alarcón's 1629 Tratado; about 40% consists of direct quotes.

Del Paso y Troncoso, F. 1906. Papeles de Nueva Espana. 2a. Ser. Tomo VII. Madrid (reimpr. Mus. Nat. Arqueologia, Historia y Ethnografica, Mexico, D. F. 1932).

Duran, Diego. 1867 [1581]. Mexico: J.M. Andrade and Y. F. Escalante (1867-1880). Historia de las Indias de Nueva España y Islas de Tierra Firme. (2 vols.), see vol. 1:431. Editorial Portúa. México City. See 1967 edition (Angel M. Garibay, Ed.).
This journal mentions that mushrooms were consumed at the inaugural celebrations of Moctezuma. This occurred years before Cortez conquered Mexico in 1519.

Flores, Francisco. 1986-1889, Historia de la Medicina en México vol. 1:55 (See p. 258, aphrodisiacs)
.

Gilberti, Maturino. 1559. Tarascan lexicon.
See hongo. Also places sacred mushroom use in Tarascan country in Michoacan.

Hernandez, Francisco. 1571-1576 [1959]. Historia Natural de Nueva Espana. Obras Completas vol. 2-3. (see vol. 2:396).
The famous 16th century botanist describes the sacred mushrooms but his illustrations mentioned in the text are missing.

Hernandez, Francisco. 1651. Rome: B deversini et z, masotti. Nova Plantarum, Animalium et Mineraluim Mexicanorum Historia.

------. 1790. Historia Plantarum Novae Hispaniae. Vol. 2, Bk. 9 Chap. 95. 3 vols.
(Ms. written before 1577).

------. 1790. Historia Plantarum Novae Hispaniae. Bk. IX:357. Iberra, Madrid.

Lanciego, Jose. June 8, 1726 [1954]. Datos para su historia La Paraoquia de Tancanhuitz.
This data provides the contents of a letter from the bishop to the clergy of the Huasteca deploring the use of the sacred mushrooms.

Lehman, Walter and Ottokar Smital. 1929. Mexicanus 1-facsimile. Codex de Vindobonensis. Vienna.

Mixe Lexicon. (circa 1800).
See entry listing: El Honguillo con emborrachan. Discovered by W. S. Miller and shows the use of the sacred mushrooms by the Mixes.

Magliabechiano Codex.. 1904. Loubat edition. See page 90. Also published by the University of California, Berkeley. 1903.

Molina, Alonso de. 1571. Vocabulario en Lengua Castellana y Mexicana.
See hongo que emborracha and Xochinanácatl (shows use among the Nahua of the Valley of México).

Motolina (Pseudonym for Toribio de Benavente). 1858. Ritos antiquos, sacrificiouse idolatras de los Indios de Nueva Espana, y de su conversion a la fe (before 1569). Coleccionde de Documentos para la Historia de México. Mexico city, D.F.
One of the most horrifying of the written Spanish descriptions on the effects of the sacred mushrooms among Indians. Motolina also notes that they are called "God's flesh", and reports of their use in Holy Communion.

------. (E. O' Gorman, Ed.). 1971 [1541]. Memoriales o bro de las Cosas de la Nueva España. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. México City. Originally published in 1541.

Nágera (Nájera) Yanguas, Diego de. 1637. Doctrina y Enseñança en la Lengua Maçahua de Cosas muy Utiles, y Provechosas para los Ministros de Doctrina. Mexico City. Fol. 27-29.
A clerical manual used by priests during confession, instructing in the Mazahua language, how to ask the Indians not to use the sacred mushrooms.

Otomí Lexicon. 1640 Ms. Biblioteca Nacional de México.
Copied from lost 16th century manuscript. Placed use of the sacred mushrooms among the Otomí Indians near Tula.

Popol, Vuh. 1950. Anonymous Quiche text. University of Oklahoma Press. Oklahoma.
English version translated by Delia Goetz and Slyvanus Griswold Morley. See page 192.
For related information see Recinos, A. (Ed.). (1947).

Pérez de Zamora Abarca, Pedro. 1905 [1580]. Relación de Teticpac. Papeles de Nueva España, Geographía y Estadística. Madrid: Francisco del Paso y Troncoso. 1905. Vol. IV:111.
A report on the use of the sacred mushrooms among Zapotec Indians in the Valley of Oaxaca.

Prescott, W. H. 1843. The History of the Conquest of Mexico with a Preliminary View of the Ancient Mexican Civilization and The Life of the Conqueror Hernando Cortés. Two Volumes. Harper and Bros. New York.

Recinos, A. (Ed.). 1947. Popol Vuh: Antiguas Historias del Quiché. Fondo de Cultura Económica. México City.

Ruíz de Alarcón, H. 1953 [1629]. Tratado de las Idolatras, Supersticiones, Dioses, Ritos, Hechizerís y Otras Costumbres Gentílicas de las Razas Aborígenes. Ediciones Fuente Cultural. México City.
For related information see De la Serna (1953).

Sahagún, Bernardino de. 1956[16th century]. The Florentine Codex. Sahagún's Spanish text and the Florentine Codex text translated by Angel Maria Garibay K. Porrua, Mexico. See Munn, 2003b.
The most important historical source of information on the use of the sacred mushrooms. See ed. C. M. de Bustamente. México City.
A. Bk. 9 Chap. 8: Florentine Codex Folio 31R-31V-1600.
B. Bk. 10 Chap. 24: Par. 16-17; Chap. 29: Par. 34-F1. Codex. Folio 122V-1600.
C. Bk. 11 Chap. 7: Par 70, 74; F1 Codex Folio 129V-131R; Illus. #516-1600.
Nahuatl text by Anderson and Dibble (English edition).
A. Bk. 9:38-39.
B. Bk. 10:12, 20, 37, 49, 55, 88, 173.
C. Bk. 11:120 (Teonacaztli), 129, 130; Illus. #516. See next entry.


------. (Translation and editing by C. E. Dibble and A. J. O. Anderson). 1950-1969. Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún. Twelve volumes. University of Utah Press. Salt Lake City, Utah.
According to Ott (1993b), "This was Sahagún's raw data, completed in 1569, his Náhuatl text as dictated by 10-12 elderly, monolingual informants and recorded by trilingual (Náhuatl, Spanish and Latin) scribes. See Sahagún (1992) for partial Spanish translation."

------. 1992. Historia General de los Cosas de Nueva España. Editorial Portúa. México City. With a proemium by Angel M. Garibay K.

Siméon, R. 1885. Dictionaire de la Langue Nahuatl ou Mexicaine. Paris.

Tezozómoc, Fernando de Alvarado. 1959. Crónica Mexicana. See Chap. 87. México City.
Tezozómoc only retells the same episode previously mentioned by Diego Duran.

Tezozómoc, H. A. 1975 [1598]. Crónica Mexicáyotl. Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. México City.

Thevet, Andre. 1905. Histoire du Mechique (before 1574). Journal Soc Amer de Paris n. s. vol. 12:18.
Lost manuscript. Originally in: Antiguedades Mexicanas (circa 1543) by Andre de Olmos.

Tula. 1640. Otomí Lexicon.
See "hongo que emborracha" and "hongos que embelezan" (places sacred mushrooms among the Otomi Indians).

Unsigned. 1537 [1912]. Procesos de Indios. Idolatras Hechiceros. Pub del Archivo Generales de la Nacion vol. 3:55. Mexico City et Seg 1912.

------. 1537. 1. The trial of Mixcoatl and Papalotl. Holy Office of the Inquisition. Mexico, 1912.
This trial reveals an analogy between the Christian Eucharist and the mushroom agape as mentioned by Motolina and Serna. Also found in AGN Procesos de Indios, Idolatras y Hechiceros vol. III:55. Mexico.

Unsigned. 1544. Codex de Yanhuitlan. Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia. 1940 edition. México.
Places sacred mushrooms in Mixtec country.

------. 1629. 2. In the case of Gonzalo Perez. Holy Office of the Inquisition. Mexico City, Mexico.
Also in the Archives Generales de la Nacion. Mexico City. Also in Heim and Wasson's Les Champignons Hallucinogènes du Mexique vol. 1:41-43. 1958.

------. 1885. Annals of the Cakchiquels, Quiche, and English Text. Edited by Daniel G. Brinton. In library of Aboriginal American Literature no. vi:114-115. Philadelphia.
Obscure mention of mushrooms. See "Mushrooms, Russia, and History Page 282.

------. 1904. Codex de Magliabechiano-Loubat edition. Rome. See p. 40.
Illustrations of sacred mushrooms.

------. 1959 [c. 1600]. Dolor en la Amistad. Nahuatl poem translated by Angel Maria Garibay. No. 37 in Xochimapictli, a collection of Poemas Nahuas. México City.

------. 1962. Codex Dresdensis. Facsimile edition. Maya Hardschrift. Akademie-Verlag. Berlin.

------. 1974. Mexicanus 1-facsimile. Codex de vindobonensis. Akademische Druk University, Verlagsanstalt, Graz, Austria.

Yanhuitlan, Códice de. (1544). Edited by Wigbirto Jiménez Moreno and Salvador Mateos Higuera. México: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. 1940.
Mentions use of the sacred mushrooms in Mixtec country.

Zamora Abarca, Pedro Perez de. 1580 [1905]. Relacion de teticpac. Papeles de Nueva España, Geografia y Estadistica vol. IV:III. Francisco del Paso y Troncoso. Madrid.



 
Part 3.

During the past 110 years, These five authors and their works who are listed directly below were all written over l10 years ago. (For a complete listing of more than 75 early historical references, see Appendix I: copied above.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe. 1874-1876. The Native Races vol. 2:360. 1874-1876. 2 volumes.

Berra, Manuel Orozco y. (circa 1870s). Historia antigua y de la conquista de México-Vol. l: 274. Vol. 2:111, 375, 402, 437.

Bourke, John Gregory. 1891. Scatologic Rites of all Nations: 89-91.

Flores, Francisco. 1886-1888. Historia de la Medicina en México-Vol. l: 55. 1886-1888.
On page 258, the divine mushrooms are listed as one of many Aphrodisiacs.

Simeon, Remi. 1885. Dictionaire de la Langue Nahuatl.
See entry under Nanacatl and Teonanácatl.



 
Part 4.

Sahagún, Bernardino de. 1956[16th century]. The Florentine Codex. Sahagún's Spanish text and the Florentine Codex text translated by Angel Maria Garibay K. Porrua, Mexico. See, Henry Munn, 2003.
The most important historical source of information on the use of the sacred mushrooms. See ed. C. M. de Bustamente. México City.
A. Bk. 9 Chap. 8: Florentine Codex Folio 31R-31V-1600.
B. Bk. 10 Chap. 24: Par. 16-17; Chap. 29: Par. 34-F1. Codex. Folio 122V-1600.
C. Bk. 11 Chap. 7: Par 70, 74; F1 Codex Folio 129V-131R; Illus. #516-1600.
Nahuatl text by Anderson and Dibble (English edition).
A. Bk. 9:38-39.
B. Bk. 10:12, 20, 37, 49, 55, 88, 173.
C. Bk. 11:120 (Teonacaztli), 129, 130; Illus. #516. See next entry.


------. (Translation and editing by C. E. Dibble and A. J. O. Anderson). 1950-1969. Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún. Twelve volumes. University of Utah Press. Salt Lake City, Utah.
According to Ott, (1993b, Pharmacotheon) "This was Sahagún's raw data, completed in 1569, his Náhuatl text as dictated by 10-12 elderly, monolingual informants and recorded by trilingual (Náhuatl, Spanish and Latin) scribes. See Sahagún (1992) for partial Spanish translation."





A normal receipt for a reprint ordered at a University for a student




"Plantae Mexicanae II

"THE IDENTIFICATION OF TEONANÁCATL:
A NARCOTIC BASIDIOMYCETE OF THE AZTECS."

From
"Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University" vol. 7(3):37-56. February 21, 1939).






































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