Created March 30, 2013
Copyright 1998-2007 by John W. Allen

Panaeolus castaneifolius Berkeley & Broome.
Left Image sketch: Courtesy of Gary Menser. Right Image and all other Photos by John W. Allen.



Cap: 1-4 cm. Convex to broad but never fully expanding. Fawn-colored to reddish-brown, zonate from the outer edge of the cap with several bands of reddish-brown colors towards the center. Sometimes with a slight umbo. Hygrophanous, fading to a straw yellow to pallid in drying to a pallid dull white. Margin slightly incurved when young, often becoming pitted and wrinkled with age. Cap also splits into sections with age forming an unequal sape of the cap into slightly resembleing flower pedals of sorts. Tan brown at times in color with wide range of colored bands in drying and fading to a tan to an off white cap with dark edges.

Gills:Adnate and slightly ventricose. Brownish to black with white edges.

Stem:4.5-7 cm.long, 4-6 mm. thick and straight. Reddish brown with vertical grooves running down the length of the stem. Hollow with short white fibrils. Straight and slightlt tapering toward the base. Sometimes bluing at base of the stem. Sometimes appears as a sivery blue.

Spores:11.5-14 x 7.5-9.5 .

Sporeprint:Jet black.

Habitat:On Gregarious in grassy places in new lawns in urban and suburban areas, in dung, rotted and/or composting hay. Also in pasturelands, riding stables and race tracks, in horse manure and stable shavings. Fruits in the early spring and late fall.

Distribution:Cosmopolitan: Oregon, Washington, Idaho, east coast of the United States, Great Britain, Europe, Russia, Asia, Australia Mexico, Central and South America and British Columbia, Canada.

Season:In the USA, February through May during the spring rains and from mid-August through September.

Dosage:2-5 large specimens or 20-30 small specimens. 3-5 grams dried and/or one ounce of fresh mushrooms.

Comment:This species at times, along with Panaeolus retirugis and Panaeolus olivaceous macroscipcally resemble fresh lawn specimens of Panaeolius subbalteatus. Also, while common in lawns at times it appears to fruit only once or twice during it's run in a single spring season and then is gone. At times, also fruiting abundantly in rotting haystacks in the Eugene-Corvalis region of Oregon and to a somewhat lesser degree, like Panaeolus subbalteatus and Panaeolus castaneifolius, siunce those latter species also appears in manure heaps throughout much of the world. To learn more about some of the primary active species of Panaeolus, please refer to the following paper on Panaeolus subbalteatus and learn how to find and harvest this species by viweing this paper listed in the URL posted below this line:

Close Encounters of the Panaeolus Kind

Panaeolus castaneifolius Gallery

Panaeolus castaneifolius Gallery

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