Revised Jan 8, 2004; August 31, 2007; August 27, 2008; April 21, 2013.
Copyright 1998-2016 by John W. Allen.



Top Row Left: Galerina autumnalis:-------------------Right: Galerina venenata
Bottom Row Left: Psilocybe cyanescens;------------Right: Psilocybe stuntzii

Many of the deadly Galerina mushrooms and Conocybe filaris
can mimic and macroscopically resemble certain species of Psilocybe
such as Psilocybe cyanescens and Psilocybe stuntzii. Examples are posted below.
Also some species of Mycena may resemble the liberty cap (Psilocybe semilanceata),
except they have white gills instead of the liberty caps which have a chocolate-brown gill spore deposit.

The Deadly Mushroom Conocybe filaris

Here we have a small colony of Psilocybe cyanescens with one
deadly Galerina growing right in amongst the colony.

And here we have one lone specimen of Psilocybe cyanescens,
the cap is caramel colored and shows the striate margin.

And here below is a deadly small grouping of Galerina autumnalis,
Similar in appearance to the above Psilocybe cyanescens.

Now here are three images of the deadly Galerina autumnalis in woodchips

Here below are two images of a related species, also deadly, Galerina venenata.

Finally, These last two images represent Chlorophyllum molybdites,
also known as "Morgan's Lepiota" and/or "Green Gills."

This mushroom is often consumed in the Mid-South to Southeast USA from Texas
to Florida and north to South Carolina as Psilocybe cubensis.
It can be recognized by its scaly and often warted cap and white shaggy ring
and by the gills which turn olive-green in age.

I often advise collectors of entheogenic mushroom species to always avoid
mushrooms with white or orange to cinnamon colored gills, always looking instead
at the ones with Chocolate brown to purple brown gills (Psilocybe) and/or
black gilled mushrooms such as those from the genus Panaeolus or Copelandia.

Always better safe than sorry.


Experimenting with wild mushrooms in any genera can be dangerous even for an avid mushroom hunter. Be sure to thoroughly read this guide before attempting to journey into a field looking for any of the entheogenic mushroom species described in this guide.

Mushrooms come in many different shapes, sizes and colors. There is no guaranteed method outside of a field guide or the knowledge of a trained mycologist to determine exactly what species of mushroom one might come across. Many species of poisonous mushrooms sometimes macroscopically resemble and/or mimic their hallucinogenic cousins.

Ingestion of some species of toxic non-psychoactive mushrooms will cause the body to flush itself through the bowels and cause severe vomiting. Extreme cramps varying from mild to severe discomfort usually occur after the ingestion of a toxic mushroom species. The author suggests that it would be dangerous for a novice mushroom hunter to consume even the most minute part of any wild mushroom without having to have had said mushroom properly identified by someone knowledgeable in the field of mushroom identification.


Ancient and/or historic evidence of cerebral mycetisms induced by the accidental ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms has been documented in various parts of the world. Early reports of intoxication attributed to the unintentional consumption of these fungi come from China as early as the 3rd century A.D., Japan during the eleventh century A.D., Great Britain in both l799 and in the early to late l800's, and in the United States around the early l900's and in France and Australia as early as the mid to late l960's.

It is of interest to note that a report from Japan indicated that there were over 366 accidental ingestions of psilocybin mushrooms reported in l929; these incidents were reported by people foraging for wild edible mushrooms.

In Africa during the l940's a number of unintentional intoxications occurred when mind-altering mushrooms were inadvertently sold as a source of food by children in public markets.

I should mention that outside of a few intoxications caused by Psilocybe cubensis (in Africa) in the 1940s and early 1950s, and one attributed to an inebriation after a whole family consumed a meal of Psilocybe semilanceata (in England in the late 1700's), the majority of all intoxications that occurred prior to the recreational use of these species, were caused by various species of Panaeolus with the exception of Japan and the Northeastern United States where some inebriations were from the result of ingesting various species of both Gymnopilus and Panaeolus active species. Academic literature verified that there are numerous published reports describing symptoms attributed to Panaeolus intoxications and such reports were often written in similar manners of interpretations of those inebriations, all were similar to what today we would of known were brought on by the accidental consumption of psilocybian fungi while foraging for wild edible fungi species.

Subjective effects included: "...drowsiness, lightheadedness, an inability to walk, a staggering gait, giggliness, much hilarity, inappropriate speech, uncontrollable laughter, euphoria and acting as if one were on a bender." On the other hand, occasionally terrifying, visual and psychological disturbances have been known to result from accidental or deliberate ingestion of Psilocybe cubensis, Psilocybe semilanceata and Psilocybe stuntzii, and the misidentification by Rolf Singer that Psilocybe baeocystis was a species involved in the early 1960s as being the cause of deaths in two young children.

Years later after the author read the original medical journal article that told of these deaths, I was able to obtain an actual Polaroid photograph taken of the mushrooms that Singer had misidentified and learned they were actually Psilocybe cyanescens. Because of Singer's error, one of several in Singer and Smith's 1958 monograph on the genus Psilocybe, several field guides by amateurs and expert mycologists began to issue written warnings about the dangers to children of eating Psilocybe baeocystis. At times many of those who consumed blue ringers (Psilocybe stuntzii and related species) sometimes resulted in emergency room treatments due to simple overdoses that were not of a dangerous kind.

In a paper published in 1958, Dr. Sam Stein briefly mentioned similar observations when Panaeolus and Psilocybe fungi were used in the treatment of a single patient. Mushroom extracts used by Dr. Stein were obtained from dried specimens of Panaeolus venenosus (syn.=Panaeolus subbalteatus now known as Panaeolus cinctulus), and Psilocybe caerulescens. Further investigations were later carried out in 1959 by Stein and some of his colleagues who revealed that the subjective effects caused by the ingestion of active species of Panaeolus were more tranquil and less hallucinogenic than the effects produced by the ingestion of certain species of Psilocybe species.

The fear of poisoning by physically toxic mushrooms is the main cause of mycophobia (a fear of mushrooms) throughout the world. Many of the deadly poisonous species of mushrooms macroscopically resemble some of the hallucinogenic mushrooms in the genus Psilocybe. For example, three species belonging to the deadly poisonous Galerina family, along with that of Conocybe filaris, are extremely poisonous mushrooms that are commonly found in mulched gardens in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and other regions of the world, and those toxic species have been observed sharing the same habitat as Psilocybe baeocystis, Psilocybe cyanescens, Psilocybe allenii, Psilocybe stuntzii and Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata. For example, see the above photographs of both Psilocybe stuntzii and Psilocybe cyanescens pictured above for comparison together with some members of the deadly Galerina family.

Another example of misidentification involves Chlorophyllum molybdites, a species commonly referred to as "green gills" or "Morgan's" Lepiota. As the the epithet 'green gills' implies, the gills of this species are green. This occurs with age. This mushroom is rather large with a scaly cap which resembles a parasol. This species is common in manured fields, meadows and lawns and does not grow directly in manure but may be found in manured fields where cattle and water buffalo graze.

According to Stephen Peele, curator of the Florida Mycology Research Center, it is often picked and accidentally consumed in Florida where shroom lovers accidentally and usually mistake it for Psilocybe cubensis (Pers. Comm. to J. W. Allen). Chlorophyllum molybdites is a toxic species but is not deadly. Peele also claimed that in Tampa, Florida, over 90% of all mushroom poisonings were the result of mushroom hunters accidentally consuming fresh specimens of Chlorophyllum molybdites that were mistaken as Psilocybe cubensis. Sadly they really do not resemble one another.

While two children in California developed a "mydriasis-fever-convulsions" syndrome after ingesting mushrooms taken from a lawn habitat, another in the state of Washington was reported to have died due to complications following the suspected consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms. Also, three children were reportedly mildly poisoned after accidentally grazing on what mycologists and physicians believed were lawn specimens of Panaeolina foenisecii Maire, a non-hallucinogenic mushroom). Later investigations of Panaeolina foenisecii by Allen and Merlin (1992b), reported that this species is not psychoactive.

A sixteen year old girl from Whidbey Island, Washington did die in December l981 after accidentally picking and eating several fresh specimens of Galerina autumnalis. She and her two teenage male companions had assumed that they ingested Psilocybe mushrooms.

It is thus possible that young children may be susceptible to convulsions following the consumption of some varieties of psilocybian mushrooms. However, the world renown Mazatec curandera Marķa Sabina and her sister Marķa Ana, made famous by the writings of the Wassons' and others, both first ate these hallucinogenic mushrooms somewhere between the ages of 7-9, and Marķa Sabina continued to do so for over 70 years without any apparent physical illness. Also, R. Gordon Wasson and his wife Valentina, allowed their 19-year-old daughter Masha to eat mushrooms apparently without any reports of ill effects.

Even a professional mycologist must be quite careful when deciding which wild mushrooms may be safe for human consumption. For example, some mushrooms, which are common and edible in Europe or Asia can be deadly poisonous or harmful enough to cause physical damage when collected and consumed in the United States, Canada, or even Australia. In 1978, Jonathan Ott reported that the "Ld50 (lethal dosage) in mice for psilocybin has been determined to be 280 mg/kg, oral ingestion", thereby assuming that a person of average weight (i.e. 70 kg/155 lb) person, "would have to ingest l9.6 grams of [the extracted chemical] psilocybin to produce death." However, in 1989, Dr. Karl L. R. Jansen at the University of Auckland stated that he believes that "the LD50 (the dose at which 50% of a sample will die) has been determined as 280 mg/kg in mice. However, it is not valid to calculate the LD50 for humans by a simple percentage/weight calculation. Mice and humans have very different metabolic rates and dispose of drugs in different ways. It is unlikely that even a large number of psilocybine mushrooms would not be toxic in humans, but we cannot suggest an exact figure from data based on rodent studies."


The first family of poisonous mushrooms which should be avoided belong to the genus Amanita and produce white spores and a white spore print. Remember that Psilocybe species produce chocolate-brown to purple-brown spores and spore prints. Copelandia and many species of Panaeolus are dung inhabiters and produce black spores and spore prints.

Amanita species have caps which are scaly. Their stems have a ring near the top of the stem and a large bulbous base at the bottom which may or may not resemble an egg sac. They are usually found in association with pine and birch trees. Amanita species contain Amatoxins and Phallotoxins. They will consume your kidney and liver within 5 to 7 days after ingestion and are usually fatal. Many species of the genus Galerina also possess some of the same toxins found in the deadly Amanita species. They too are also very deadly. Some species of Galerina are macroscopically similar to several varieties of Psilocybe mushrooms. The caps of Galerina species vary from chestnut orange to orange rusty-brown. They have a slight ring appearing on their stem. The color of the spores and spore print are a rusty orange brown and their habitat includes woodchips, bark mulch and lawns.

As previously noted elsewhere in this guide, in the Pacific Northwest, some species of Galerina have been observed fruiting in and around specimens of Psilocybe cyanescens, Psilocybe stuntzii and Psilocybe baeocystis. Do not forget that in December of 1982, two teen-aged boys and a 16-year-old girl became seriously ill after consuming Galerina mushrooms which they mistook for a species of Psilocybe. The young girl failed to receive proper medical attention in time because she feared that she and her friends, who also became ill, would be prosecuted for their illegal activities involving the illicit use of the mushrooms. Both boys survived the ordeal, yet both have permanent damage to their kidneys and liver. The girl died on Christmas morning of 1982.

Many species of wild mushrooms are known to contain muscarine, a toxin, which when eaten, will cause profuse sweating, severe stomach cramps, nausea and vomiting. It is always a good idea to have in ones possession, a book on edible and poisonous mushrooms when collecting in the wild. Recently, a newly reported species of Galerina was discovered fruiting in a green house in Germany. Galerina steglichii Besl was identified as a psilocybian species. This in itself is a good reason not to collect Galerina or Inocybe species because of their relationship to many toxic species which contain either amatoxins and or large amounts of muscarine.

Since individual humans have different metabolisms, only a small amount of mushrooms should be ingested during an initial experience. After a 24-72 hour period, one can increase or decrease the amount ingested until a desired dosage feels comfortable.

Furthermore, any wild collected mushroom which the consumer has suspicions about the identification of such a species, may take them to an expert mycologist at any university or college with either a mycology or botany department. Teachers and students will be more than happy to properly identify any mushroom brought to them for identification.

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