Revised March 9, 2005; October 10, 2007; January 14, 2008; March 27, 2013; March 12, 2017.
Copyright 1999-2017 by John W. Allen.


Copelandia cyanescens, Kualoa Ranch, Oahu, Hawaii.


Cap: 1.5-3.5 (4) cm broad. Hemispherical to campanulate to convex at maturity. Margin initially translucent when moist. Incurved in young specimens. Light brown in color becoming pallid gray to whitish with cap cracking in age. Bruising blue when handled.

Gills: Adnexed, close and thin, mottled.

Stem: (65) 85-115 mm long by 1.5-3 mm thick. Equal to bulbous at the base with fine fibrillose flecks, partial veil absent. Bluing intensely when damaged from human handling.

Spores: 12-14 X 7.5-11.

Sporeprint: Black.

Habitat: Growing scattered to gregarious in manure heaps in the tropics and neotropics of both hemispheres.

Distribution: Cosmopolitan, In dung in fields and pastures in Hawaii, Louisiana and Florida (United States); Mexico, Brazil, Bolivia (South America); The Philippines, Eastern Australia, India, Bali, Southeast Asia and other similar locations.

Season: During and after heavy rains.

Dosage: 7 to 10 fresh mushrooms and from 1-2 grams dried.

Comment: Copelandia species have a cosmopolitan distribution and are known to occur in the tropics of both hemispheres. The species was originally reported and described from Sri Lanka by Berkeley and Broome in 1871 as Agaricus cyanescens. A few years later it was identified from the Philippines as Copelandia papilionacea by Bresadola (1881-92). Other worldwide locations include, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, Samoa, Hawai'i, various areas of North America (including Oregon, California, and Florida), Jamaica, Mexico, various areas of Central America and South America (including Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru), Madagascar, France, and Italy. There are at least 8 binomials used for this mushroom which represent 8 different species of Copelandia mushrooms, of which Copelandia cyanescens is the primary type species. Although this is a manured mushroom and Paul Stamets wrote that this species has been observed in horse manure from Florida and reported that he had found specimens growing in Tenino, Washington. The author of this guide has never collected this species in fields where horses dominate the pastures and usually has only found this growing in gaur, cow, and buffalo manure and/or in manured soils at pasturelands and rice paddies and fertilized manured soil patches. On one occasion two specimens of a suspected species of the subgenus of Copelandia was collected at the 'Trail's End" riding stables near Tumwater, Washington. The latter is home to many horses and stables with large compost heaps of various species of Panaeolus and other composting hay/straw species, especially Panaeolus subbalteatus. See Shroom Stalkers Shroom Habitats on the Species Identification page. Also, on one occasion, several pounds of Psilocybe stuntzii appeared in the back of the stables where the stable shavings of wood and horse manure and hay were dumped for composting. This growth of blue ringers only appeared one season and never came back.

Kualoa Ranch land, Oahu, Hawaii. Habitat of Copelandia species

Natural bluing in Copelandia cyanescens from Ban Nathon, Koh Samui.

Cambodia: Copelandia cyanescens
Hawaii: Copelandia cyanescens
Malaysia: (Kuala Lumphur) Copelandia cyanescens
Thailand: Copelandia cyanescens
NEW: Thailand: Copelandia cyanescens, 2005-2006
Vietnam: Copelandia cyanescens
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