Created April 16, 2010. Revised July 14, 2010; February 14, 2012; March 26, 2013; May 14, 2013; June 1, 2013; and May 4, 2017.
Copyright 1998-2017 by John W. Allen

Anthropological and Cultural Historical Mushroom Data for Amateurs, Students and Scholars

A collection of rare and hard to fine articles on psilocybian mushrooms and those who wrote of them. These papers began with reports on the Olmecs, the Toltecs, and the Aztecs of the 15th century to the present-day use by Mazatec and others indigenous tribal-groups residing in Central Mexico (Oaxaca to Xalapa to Central America (Guatemala). Copyrights of the articles presented on these pages are from various sources originally written and published between the late 1400s and up until and through 2013.

(1): Angus McDonald's Abuse of Drug Terminology.
(2): Andrew Weil's 1975 High Times Interview - Aug-Sept 1975.
(3): Andrew Weil's Stalking the Wild Mushroom High.
(4): Andrew Weil's The Strange Case of the Harvard Drug Scandal.
(5): Bernard Lowy's Hallucinogenic Mushrooms in Guatemala.
(6): Carlos Castaneda: Fact or Fiction (Obituary News Item).
(7): E. R. Badham's Ethnobotany of Psilocybin Mushrooms, Especially P. cubensis.
(8): Eunice V. Pike's Mazatec Sexual Impurity and Bible Reading
(9): Eunice V. Pike and Florence Cowan's Mushroom Ritual Vs. Christianity.
(10): Gastón Guzmán and Jonathan Ott's Psilocybe stuntzii.
(11): Guzmán, Ott, Boydson and Pollock's Magic Fungi from California to Canada.
(12): Hallucinogens in Native American Shamanism in Modern Life (1978).
(13): Homero Aridjis' Marěa Sabina in Mexico City.
(14): In Memory of Steven Hayden Pollock.
(15): J. Borovicka, A. Rockefeller and P. G. Werner's Psilocybe allenii.
(16): Jonathan Ott's Entheogens.
(17): Jonathan Ott's Recreational Use of Magic Mushrooms in Mexico.
(18): Jonathan Ott's Washington's Magic Mushrooms.
(19): Jonathan Ott and Steven H. Pollock's Interview with R. Gordon Wasson.
(20): Martha Singer's Marěa Sabina's Mistake.
(21): Nat Finklestein's "Honghi" Meester.
(22): Pollock's A Novel Experience with Panaeolus: A Case Study from Hawaii.
(23): Pollock's Liberty Caps: Recreational Hallucinogenic Mushrooms.
(24): Pollock's Psilocybian Mycetismus with Special Reference to Panaeolus.
(25): Pollock's The Psilocybin Mushroom Pandemic.
(26): R. Gordon Wasson Reviews Castaneda's First Four Books.
(27): Robert Graves Reveals his First Voyage on Mushrooms (1958).
(28): 2nd International Conference on Hallucinogenic Mushrooms (1977).
(29): Rolf Singer's Medical Mushrooms.
(30): Sheep and Magic Mushrooms.
(31): Smith, Ott, Singer and Wasson's: Feud of the Shroom Scholars - BIG TIME
NEW (32): Tjakko Stijve's:
Psilocin, Psilocybin, Serotonin, and Urea in Panaeolus cyanescens from Various Origin.
NEW(33): Stijve and de Meijer's: Macromycetes From the State of Paraná, Brazil. The Psychoactive Species 4.
(34): Valentina P. Wasson's I Ate the Sacred Mushrooms.
(35): Weston La Barre's Anthropological Perspectives.
(36): Weston La Barre's Psychedelics Galore.
(37): Weston La Barre's Shamanic Origins of Religion and Medicine.

"SHROOMS: A Cultural History"

Alice in Dallas' Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
John W. Allen's Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
Brian Akers' Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
A Kind Rejoiner by Andy Letcher to J. W. Allen's Review of Andy's Book, Shrooms.
Billy Bardo's Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
Bwookie's Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
DonkaDoo's Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
G. V. Guest's Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
R. "Rob" Hardy's Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
Michael Hoffman's Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms with 6 Comments.
Jan Irvin's Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
James Kent's Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
S. Marsh's Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
H. Mowrey's Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
Mr. A. Muscaria's Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
Onanas' Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
Tjakko Stijve's Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
Jacob Sullum's Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.
Magickal Merlin "Wizard's" Review of Andy Letcher's Book, Shrooms.


Presented here for the first time ever online, a new collection of 15 sometimes very rare and hard to find scholarly articles by renown ethnobotanist and explorer, the late Dr. Richard Evans Schultes of the Botanical Museum as well as Director of the Farlow Herbarium at Harvard University.

The first three chapters of this collection of works by Dick Schultes other early researchers with some additional dialogue provided by John W. Allen in honoring the scholarly botanical, mycological, and historical publications of Richard Evans Schultes who later shared with the world, his many botanical discoveries new to science.


In the Mid 1930s, two young collegiate students, ,one a young pre-med student from Harvard University named Richard Evans Schultes and a young anthropologist from Duke University, Weston LaBarre, set out on the journey of a life time. A journey that one could say would literally, as well as physically, boldly take them safely where few western-bred born humans had ever traveled to before.

In the 1930s, Richard Evans Schultes was enrolled as a pre-med student at Harvard University. One day, his classmates and he were asked to chose from a list of books provided to all his classmates by his teacher and mentor, Professor Oakes Ames.

Because of Schultes' choice in his reading assignment, his life was about to change forever. The book that Dr. Schultes chose to read was Heinrich Klüver's, "Mescaline and the Mechanisms of Hallucination." The first major publicized study of peyote and it's pharmacological actions when consumed by humankind. The book, well written in a scholarly manner, allowed the author to present his truthful opinion on the ritualistic use of peyote by North American Indians.

In this book, the author presented in explicit detail by describing the traditions, rituals, ceremonies, and psychological effects caused by the active indole (mescaline and other alkaloids) associated with this cacti (later noted through analysis as both an indole alkaloid as well as belonging to the phenylethylamine family. A compound related to such drugs as amphetamine, MDA, MMDA, MDMA, MEM currently referred to as 'designer drugs' that were created through a real invested interest in their possible medicinal use as an adjacent to psychotherapy, by alchemist extraordinaire, Dr. Alexander (Sasha) Shulgin."

After Schultes read his book and finished his class assignment, he began to show signs that he had become somewhat enthralled and captivated by what he had read. This interest prodded him even further in that now he personally wanted to experience the effects of the mechanisms of peyote as described in Heinrich Klüver's book. Soon Schultes was able to partake of the peyote buttons in an arranged ceremony led by a shaman of the Native American Church held in Oklahoma in the early to mid 1930s. The trip was financed in part through Harvard University and with extra pocket money from his mentor Oakes Ames. So Richard Evans Schultes was able to fulfill his desire to experience what Wasson would later refer to or described as what he claimed was the 'ineffable.' The effects of the sacred cacti touched the heart and soul of Richard Evans Schultes, causing him to immediately changed his major at Harvard from pre-med to economic botany. Thus began what one may term as the greatest adventure that became his life.

Of interest to those viewing I have included here the primary research papers of Richard Evans Schultes, along with several related articles on the mushrooms, two short biographies of Dr. Schultes:
(1): A
journalistically well researched biography of R. E. Schultes published in a 1960 issue of the New Yorker.
(2): A short biography of Dr. Schultes as written by his close friend, Wade Davis, author of "The Serpent and the Rainbow."

The latter is an edited abridged version extracted from Wade Davis' biography of Dr. Schultes [One River). This short edited biography by Wade Davis was published in a past issue of a new-aged magazine, "Shaman's Drum." Included here are some personal letters to JWA from R. E. Schultes and two obituaries written after his death.

Below are numerous papers on the early literature of Richard Evans Schultes, Rolf Singer, and others who wrote about these mushrooms or contributed to their study that eventually led the Wassons' to Marěa Sabina and into the pages of Life Magazine, thus introducing to Western Civilization the existence of Mushrooms that Cause Strange Visions.

Early Documented Studies of Richard Evans Schultes and Others.
With commentary by J. W. Allen
(1): John W. Allen's Modern Scholarly Research (1900-1938).
(2): R. E. Schultes' The Identification of Teonanácatl: A Narcotic Basidiomycete of the Aztecs.
(3): R. E. Schultes Teonanácatl: The Narcotic Mushroom of the Aztecs (1940).
(4): R. Singer's Mycological Investigations on Teonanácatl: The Mexican Hallucinogenic Fungi Part. 1. (1958).
(5): R. E. Schultes' Teonanacate (teonanácatl): Botanical Sources of the New World Narcotics (1963).
(6): R. E. Schultes' The Plant Kingdom and the Hallucinogens: Part I (July 1969).
(7): R. E. Schultes' Little Flowers of the Gods [High Times, Oct. 1987, with letter from Schultes, 1988].
(8): R. E. Schultes' Peer Review of J. W. Allen's, Springtime Magic (1988).
(9): R. E. Schultes 3 Pers. Comms. to John W. Allen (1989, 1989, 1994).
(10): R. E. Schultes' "Introduction:" to The Sacred Mushroom Seeker (1990).
(11): E. J. Kamm. Jr's Profiles: Jungle Botanist. New Yorker Mag Biography (1992).
(12): Wade Davis' One River: Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest (Schultes' Bio. 1996).
(13): Wade Davis' R. E. Schultes and his Search for Teonanácatl (1938-1939). Shaman's Drum Journal, 1997.
(14):Jonathan Kandall's R. E. Schultes, 86, Dies. New York Times Obit., April 13, 2001 (2 versions, 1 Photo).
(15): Deborah Lynn Siegel's Richard Evans Schultes, Swashbuckling Ethnobotanist. TRP Mag. Fall, 2001.

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